The principles and theory associated with thermoelectric effects were not established by any one person at any one time. The discovery of the thermoelectric behavior of certain materials is generally attributed to T. J. Seebeck. In 1821, Seebeck discovered that in a closed circuit made up of wire of two dissimilar metals, electric current will flow if the temperature of one junction is elevated above that of the other. Seebeck’s original discovery used a thermocouple circuit made up of antimony and copper. Based on most common usage and recognition today, there are eight thermoelement types: S,R,B,J,K,N,T and E. Read more “Thermoelectricity in Retrospect”
Unfortunately, product obsolescence is a fact of life and as the industrial pace picks up, needs and applications change, as do the availability of parts required to make our products. In some cases we have to make products obsolete because we cannot source components we need to manufacture those products. Read more “Does Athena offer a replacement for my old unit?”
Understanding the fundamentals of temperature, power and process controls is made easier if we break the process into its component parts of Sensors, Sensor Placement, Process Load Characteristics, Control Modes, Proportional Outputs, Power Handlers, and Heater and Control Connections. Once the fundamentals are understood, the selection of measurement and control system for the process needs becomes a relatively simple decision.
Read more “Fundamentals of Temperature, Power and Process Control”